Growing Algae: Nutrient Optimization in Algae Cultivation

Growing Algae – By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Creations Lab) and Dr. Aecio D’Silva.

Growing Algae

Growing Algae

Growing algae is easy, right? Just let your swimming pool or pond sit for a couple of days with enough sunlight and some algae will start appearing. You will probably even get a decent amount of biomass out (more than what you want if you need to clean it out).

However, maintaining a healthy algal culture at its maximum productivity is not as straightforward as one initially expects. From a biochemical standpoint you actually do need a long list of chemicals (nutrients) to be optimized to keep your culture ‘happy’.

Besides having enough light and optimal temperature and pH, growing algae require carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, and a long list of trace amounts of minerals in the water.

The three main nutrients for growing algae are essentially carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorous (P).  For the most part there are enough of the other minerals present in the water that there is not much need for supplementation when the culture is started.

However once the culture is growing healthy and ‘blooming’ these other mineral metals need to be closely monitored and optimized as well.

Growing Algae:  Less Input = Lower Cost

We generally have a gross idea of how much of the nutrients are required for growing algae, however if you ask most people in the field if they optimized their media for cost input versus biomass output you will find that most of them have not put forward the time and investment to fully analyze this.

Nevertheless this is a very important factor and can save a significant amount on fertilizer inputs on a large scale. Most people have analyzed the cost of their carbon input (e.g. from CO2), but there is for example an optimal N to P ratio that is species dependent which is often not considered.

Growing Algae: Recycle N and P: Necessity, not a Choice

When growing algae for oil production there is one important factor about nutrients to consider. The carbon is really what ends up in your product. The lipids are essentially composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen atoms.

The N and P are used in the synthesis of the machinery (proteins and DNA) that allows the algae to grow and synthesize the lipids, but they end up as part of the “left-over” biomass after extracting the lipids. Basically N and P can be seen as catalysts that can be recovered from the lipid extracted algae (LEA).

Theoretical calculations show that there is simply not enough fertilizer to grow algae (or other biofuel crops) as a fossil oil replacement if one doesn’t recycle the N and P. The recycling or reuse of the N and P has been promoted as a ‘natural’ part of the process of large scale algal cultivation by several groups, however it is often overlooked, underestimated or unknown that this will come with a certain cost.

Depending on your extraction process it is important to understand what chemical form your N and P end up in, and if this is a form that can be directly reused by the algae, or is there need for a ‘conversion’ step.

Wastewater is a good source of free nutrients for algae cultivation that can significantly reduce the operation cost of growing algae systems.  One caution with wastewater is the presence of organic substrates which could lead to higher risk of contamination of the algae by heterotrophic bacteria.

As we posted before, depending on the wastewater source, there may also be a need for an alternative primary cleanup step, which will need to feed into the overall life cycle analysis.

Growing Algae: Lessons from Nature

Nutrient recycling is not a new concept. In natural ecosystems all nutrients are essentially recycled in what is known as a biogeochemical cycle. The chemicals are recycled, although in some cycles there may be places (called reservoirs) where they may reside for years before they are reused. Often this is the time it takes for a natural conversion to a usable chemical form.

The key factor in these processes is time. The algae biofuels industry needs to come up with clever, green, sustainable ways speed up this recycling process.

One way, is to use Aquafuelsponics systems to apply what we’ve learned from nature and optimize the nutrient recycling process in an intelligent design that makes it biochemically feasible to reuse the N and P directly in the algae cultivation systems.

AquaFuelsPonics = Aquaculture + Biofuels + Hydroponics

Systems AquaFuelsPonics or just FuelsPonics allows you grow healthy food and biofuels feedstock. It is the synergetic integration of the production of fish (normally tilapia), bio-fertilizer, hydroponic plants (vegetables and other produce), biogas and algae for biofuels (large-scale systems) in a controlled environment where the water is continuously recycled and re-circulated.

This is an approach that could help algae for biofuels growers look at the overall picture and think outside the box for a sustainable solution.  However, some refining and test pilot work needs to be done before utilizing these and other current approaches on a massive scale.

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Microorganisms: What to Learn from Microbes, Heroes or Villains?

Microorganisms – By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Creations Lab) and Dr. Aecio D’Silva.

All of us have been plagued at some point in time with the little critters, whether it’s getting sick with a bacterial cold, hard-to-kill mold, or a pool covered with slimy algae scum. We generally refer to these as pests or germs of whatever bad name comes to mind. Are they Heroes or Villains?

Microorganisms - Heroes or Villains?

Microorganisms – Heroes or Villains?

We tend to forget that there are millions of microorganisms that are not harmful to us at all, but in a lot of cases are beneficial to our existence.

Think for example of gut bacteria such as E. coli present in humans and bacteria in the rumen of cows that are crucial to digestion.

In a broader sense, microorganisms like bacteria, yeast and algae have the capability to make carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids to high amounts with minimal inputs. Often all is needed is water, air and sunlight. Try surviving on just that with our human bodies.

The human genome is full of very efficient enzymes and traits that are tuned to break down these biomasses into biological energy, but we’re not equipped to perform these basic assimilatory tasks.

Over the years, scientists have found clever ways to take advantage of these critters and their superior capabilities. We are currently using fermentation with microorganisms on a large industrial scale for higher value chemicals and products: e.g. fermentation of hops into beers or corn mash into ethanol.

Not only are we using the naturally occurring organisms, in the last decade there have been an explosion of industrial use for genetically engineered organisms. We have recently posted articles on the history of genetic engineering and using GE for algal biofuel production. However the list of ongoing experiments and development of novel GMO’s is growing constantly.

Microorganisms – Social Microbes

What we can learn from microorganisms like algae is not only limited to the specific traits they have or what we can develop them to have. In the last couple of years there has been an increasing interest in how bacterial and algal communities can communicate.

Even though these organisms are all individual cells, they have developed clever ways to signal to each other, which in the end benefits the whole group. Scientists are interested in how these critters can collectively gather information about their environment and find an optimal path to growth.

The communication between organisms occurs through chemical and mechanical means. Most microorganisms are capable of “chemosensing” where they can detect certain chemicals in the environment and determine whether or not it is beneficial for growth to stay in that environment or to swarm away to a different area.

The interaction will increase when the cells find themselves in less favorable environments, which signals to the entire group to swarm to a new area.

Often these organisms are capable of forming so called “biofilms”, where the group as a whole can colonize a certain surface area. This provides a protective mechanism for the entire community.

If you find some resemblance in this to animal and human behavior, you’re not the only one. Scientists are now further analyzing such basic forms of communal behavior in the hopes that it can be applied to artificial intelligence and group behavior of robots.

 Microorganisms – GE microbes: the cheapest labor for your business

No doubt that we can learn more from these little critters, both on a social and biochemical level. We will certainly continue to use these organisms in the coming decades for production of our everyday chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Especially with novel technologies that are designing more “tailor-made” synthetic genomes we are sure that many more microbial-based innovations are on the horizon.

Interesting is that when these organisms are being used in new and existing industrial processes, they are often at the core of the business model. We are depending on these tiny ‘production machines’, which are often fed only minimal inputs to reduce costs, worked until they are exhausted and then extracted for all their products. And they do it all without complaining or asking for a raise.

Next time you think about bugs you might be a bit more thankful.

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Biokerosene: Revolution in World Aviation

Biokerosene: Making a Revolution in World Aviation

Biokerosene: Long before biofuels had the visibility and acceptance they have today, we have written, promoted and disseminated in our training courses, lectures, seminars, books and papers what we call ‘biofuel revolution’.

Turbine Jet Fueled with Lufthansa Biokerosene (click to enlarge)

Turbine Jet Fueled with Lufthansa Biokerosene (click to enlarge)

A few years ago we wrote an article on this subject that generated repercussions in the industry with opinions both favorable and not so positive. Some even said this would never be a reality.

We remember clearly when, at the beginning of the last decade, we said that biofuels could be made from waste processing tilapia, very few believed it. However, we never give up a good idea, even if it implies overcoming some challenges.

We develop general and specific sites (mybelojardim.com, algaeforbiofuels.com, biofuelsrevolution.com) aimed at disseminating information and promoting the sustainable production of biofuels at all possible levels.

We affirm and reaffirm that if done correctly, the peaceful revolution of Biofuels has the potential to completely transform and change the primary sector and positively impact the entire global economy.

Today we see that slowly but surely, this new highly active and important sector is gradually taking shape, with the prospective to transform and boost agricultural and aquaculture industries globally.

One of the fast growing potentials we observed it is the capability of supplying biokerosene to the airline industry.  A market worth around $ 100 billion per year that is now open to renewable fuels.

What we have observed is that after years of ups and downs producing more thunder than lightning, the commercial production of Biokerosene for civil aviation industry worldwide is slowly becoming a fact, starting with production on several continents.

Candidates of Raw Materials for Production of Aviation Biokerosene

The leading candidates of raw materials for biokerosene aviation are jatropha, camelina, algae and greasy residues. Each of these sources has its ardent supporters.

Recently a Mexican airline company made the first flight in Latin America biokerosene using the base oil of Jatropha curcas flying from Mexico City to the city of Tuxtla Gutierrez in the southern state of Chiapas.

In this technological stage none of these candidates of raw materials can produce at a price approaching that of fossil fuel aviation Jet A-1.

However, it is only a matter of time that with additional research and large investments prices will become competitive in the market.

When we look at the emerging picture of biofuels and biokerosene, it is increasingly clear that, although the United States and Brazil are major producers of renewable energy currently in the form of ethanol, many other countries are entering this race.

In March this year a European consortium Airbus, the Romanian state airline Tarom, UOP Honeywell and CCE (Camelina Company) announced plans to establish a center for the production of biokerosene in Romania for the production of bio-jet fuels for civil aviation, using camelina as raw material.

Recently, China National Petroleum Corp. announced that it delivered 15 tonnes of jatropha oil to help Air China to make biofuel-powered flight tests, scheduled for later this year. And just last year Boeing announced a collaboration with the Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) to establish a joint laboratory to accelerate microalgae-based aviation biofuels research.

This week, the Mozambique information agency announced that a local company headquartered in the UK, exported to the German airline Lufthansa, the first batch of 30 tonnes of jatropha oil produced in the Mozambican province of Manica.

In Brazil, the aircraft manufacturers Boeing and Embraer announced plans to jointly finance a sensitivity analysis to investigate the possibility of producing renewable fuel by air from the Brazilian sugar cane.

The study will also be financed by the Interamerican Development Bank (IDB), and will evaluate the environmental effects of fuel produced by an international company from sugar cane in Brazil.

However, as shown on our website, history and greater stimulus to accelerate the development of biofuels for aviation occurred in July this year, when the ASTM International announced the approval of its standard fuel Bio-SPK, allowing the use of hydro – treated renewable jet (HRJ) Jet A-1 fuel in commercial aviation.

This has established the feasibility of bio-jet fuels to be mixed at a ratio of 50-50 with Jet A-1 fuel derived from traditional fossil fuels.

Acceptance Challenges For A Large-Scale Bio-Kerosene Aviation

Currently, the biggest challenge for acceptance in a wide range of aviation biofuel is its high cost. Biokerosene delivered last year for the U.S. military to assess the absurd cost of over U.S. $ 70 per gallon.

Of course, these prices have no way to be competitive with fuel derived from traditional sources of hydrocarbons.

However, we all know that processing costs will decrease in direct proportion to the achievement of volume production on a large scale.

As is well known worldwide, both Brazil and the United States have supported the production of biofuel at market values, ??practiced in the form of ethanol. In the case of Brazil derived from sugar cane, in the United States produced from corn.

Even though the production is for ground transportation, the two countries are capable of being leaders in biojetfuels also.

This shows that the technology is in place, the product has been certified and at the end of the day, the Brazilian and American groups are talking about an agricultural product which ideally, depending on where it is planted, can produce one or even two crops per year. Or in the case of algae, double its biomass every day.

With these two and other countries and producers such as Boeing, Airbus and Embraer entered in full speed in the promotion of biojetfuels production, we have plenty of opportunities to see prices fall and the biofuels revolution actually happening in the civil aviation industry and military.

In practice we have a huge, multibillion dollar market for jet fuel open to farmers in both agriculture and aquaculture areas. Opportunities like that cannot be wasted.

By: Dr. Aecio D’Silva, CEO Moura Technologies and Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Creations Lab)

Algae for Animal Feed – Algaeforbiofuels

By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Creations Lab of Moura Tecnologies)

Algae Meal

As we have promoted before, algae are a valuable producer of oil and therefore an emerging resource for alternative fuel production. However a major opportunity lies in the use of algae as a protein source for food production.

Of particular interest is the use of algae as feed for farm animals, where the algae are referred to as ‘algae meal’.

An estimated 30% of current algal production is sold for animal feed application, with poultry and fish as the main targets.

Dried algae cake is a source of nutrients for both humans and animals because it has a high protein content, sometimes up to 60% of the dry matter.

In essence, algae are composed of three main components: lipids (oil), carbohydrates (sugars) and proteins. In addition, algae meal is also a rich source of carotene, vitamin C and K, and B-vitamins.

Current technologies that are under development are focusing on extracting the lipids from the algal biomass while leaving the carbohydrates and proteins available for other uses. When extracting the lipids for fuel production, one is left with so called LEA (lipid extracted algae).

The exact composition of LEA depends on the algae species as well as the growth conditions and the lipid extraction methods used.

A number of nutritional and toxicological evaluations have demonstrated the suitability of algae biomass as a valuable feed supplement or substitute for conventional protein sources (e.g. soybean meal, fish meal, rice bran, etc.). A few factors need to be taken into consideration when proposing algae as animal feed:

–          PER (protein efficiency ratio) = weight gain per unit of protein consumed by the test animal

–          Digestibility = the cellulosic cell wall of the algae causes digestion problems in non-ruminants like humans, but shouldn’t be an issue for cattle. Pretreatment of the algae (e.g. during lipid extraction) is also expected to increase the utilization of the proteins in the algal meal.

–          Palatability = often the algal biomass has a slight fish odor, which might turn off human consumers, but prelimary studies with fish, rabbits and cattle seems to indicate that this is not an issue with those animals.

Overall it appears that there is a huge market potential arising for the use of lipid extracted algae (LEA) in the cattle feed industry. In the US, the regulatory pathway is still being paved for using algae meal on a commercial scale for cattle that is intended for human consumption; however as the algae production for other products like fuel is growing these pathways will undoubtedly be more rapidly developed.

Production costs of microalgae just as a protein source is still too high to compete with conventional protein sources. Algae for human consumption are currently only sold as a specialty product in health food stores.

However, if the protein and lipids can be produced and extracted as co-products it drives down the economics for both products. In addition, if animal feed is a target product, the wastewater from the cattle farm can in theory be used to grow the algae, which can then be used as food supplement for the cattle.

Therefore co-location of algae production farms with cattle farms and biorefineries seems like a valuable option to generate an integrated food-fuel system.

Flue Gas for Algae Cultivation: Curse or Blessing?

Just a few years back, when algae started to revive as the potential solution for the emerging energy crisis, it was believed that the use of flue gas from power plants or other industries would be the main CO2 source for large scale algae cultivation.

Not a bad concept, since this is a cheap and plentiful source of carbon for the algae and helps to bring down the cost of algae-derived fuels.

Several proposals have been submitted to co-locate algae farms with e.g. coal power plants so that the flue gas doesn’t have to be transported over long distances. This sounds like a great idea, but is it really feasible on a large scale?

As more research has been performed on small scales, it has become clear that the use of flue gas does have some challenges that need to be overcome to use it for large scale algae production.  One of the concerns is that flue gas contains a certain percentage of pollutants such as particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx). The contaminants are dependent on the material that has been burned.

A critical issue is the tolerance of algae to SOx and NOx. These gases are toxic to the algae growth when present in elevated concentrations. Research has shown that algae are most sensitive to the SO2 with a significant effect on the growth above 50-60 ppm (parts per million).

The toxicity levels are strain dependent and maintaining the pH with a buffer appears to help them grow under higher toxicity levels. NO can generally be tolerated up to 100 ppm, but depending on the strain, higher seems to work as well. The algae cell density matters as well, so if a continuous culture can be kept at high enough density one might get away with the higher limits.

Since the Clean Air Act Amendment in 1990, there are strict regulations in place in the US as to the levels of SO2 that can be present in industrial exhausts. This has forced industries to clean up their flue gas with a series of chemical processes and scrubbers, which remove pollutants.

In general, modern flue gas desulfurizing units (FGD’s) bring down the SOx to about 70 ppm. Some of the more tolerant strains might be ok in that, but it is still not low enough for general use in algae cultivation. Currently, the desulfurization is being further expanded to also remove toxic metals like mercury from the flue gas.

By employing state-of-the-art biotechnology and bioengineering we are currently working on adapting algal species to tolerate these higher concentrations of flue gas levels. This will shortcut the need for additional cleanup of the flue gas which is an expensive process and would make the use of flue gas for algae cultivation cost prohibitive.

Algae growth on flue gas is no longer solely being suggested for fuel production alone, but current research is now focusing on using it as a method for carbon sequestration (long term capture and storage or CO2).

In an attempt to mitigate and control “global warming”, there has been a great deal of interest and investment in efficient methods for carbon sequestration.  Algae (and other plants) take up CO2 as part of their normal metabolism and generate oxygen in the process.

If algae can be adapted to tolerate the higher concentrations of flue gas, and greenhouse gasses are captured while useful biomass is generated, we will have created one more viable solution for a greener future.

Solar Giants on the Rise in the Southwest US

By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Creations Lab)

We tend to focus our blogs on the conversion of solar energy into liquid transportation fuels, but the alternative of solar for electricity has recently been in the news with a couple of impressive large scale operations.

On December 21, DOE announced it has finalized a $1.45 billion loan guarantee for Abengoa Solar Inc.’s solar project near Gila Bend, Arizona. This impressive Arizona project is called Solana and will have a 250-megawatt (MW) capacity.

It is believed to be the world’s largest parabolic trough concentrating solar plant. In a solar trough, synthetic heat transfer oil is heated up as it passes the trough. Energy in the oil is used to generate superheated, high pressure steam that is delivered to a steam turbine. This turbine powers an electrical generator, creating electricity.

The Arizona solar project is the first large-scale U.S. solar plant capable of also storing the energy it generates. Solana will produce enough energy to serve 70,000 households and will avoid the emissions of 475,000 tons of carbon dioxide per year compared to a natural gas burning power plant.

Solana will be constructed like its smaller 50 MW sister plant Solnova1 (located in Sevilla, Spain) with the addition of storage capacity. More than 900,000 mirrors will be manufactured in a facility close to Phoenix. Electricity from the project will be sold through a long-term power purchase agreement with Arizona Public Service Company.

In addition, news was also released in December that the solar plant developer SolarReserve is going ahead with the purchasing of materials and equipment for two large solar projects in California and Nevada. This involves a 110 MW Crescent Dunes Energy Project in Nye County, Nevada and a 150 MW Rice Solar Energy project located in Riverside County, California

Both projects have secured 25-year power purchase agreements, one with Nevada Utility NV Energy and the other with Pacific Gas & Electric Company (PG&E). Currently SolarReserve is aiming to secure a loan guarantee from the US Department of Energy to support the two projects.

SolarReserve technology is somewhat different from the Arizona Solana project in that it uses a so called “power tower”. It involves use of fields of mirrors, known as heliostats, which collect sunlight and focus it on a receiver located in a central tower.

In the tower, it heats a molten salt to more than 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit, for use producing steam to drive a power-generating turbine. Both projects are projected to break ground in 2011 once permitting and anticipated DOE financing is completed.

Also in early December last year the switch was flipped on America’s largest photovoltaic solar power plant, which is also located in Nevada (Boulder City). This 48-MW Copper Mountain Solar facility is now generating enough renewable energy to power approximately 14,000 homes.

Sempra Generation (a subdivision of Sempra Energy) constructed the plant beginning January 2010 on 380 acres of desert 40 miles southeast of Las Vegas. On December 1, Sempra Generation officials announced that construction was complete and that emission-free electricity was being generated. The power has already been sold to PG&E under two separate 20-year contracts.

Sempra Generation already has plans to begin its next PV plant construction projects, including a major 600-MW plant in Arizona.

Arizona has positioned itself to become the “Mecca of Solar Energy”, which seems a smart investment and the idea goes around that the state puts itself in that position to become an exporter of its most abundant resource: solar energy.

Other emerging solar based technologies, such as algae for biofuel, are expected to contribute to this image. The recent announcement of the state funded Arizona Center for Algae Technology and Innovation (AzCATI) is a promising step in that direction.

Placing bets on multiple alternative energy solutions makes sense in times where none of them have provided an ultimate resolution. For example, solar makes sense in the Southwest US, but other places are better off using e.g. wind energy.

The true solution to energy independence will need to come from a combination of technologies and potential hybrid technologies, combined with continuous innovations that increase their efficiency and scalability.

Algae For Waste Water Treatment And BioFuel Production: A Double Winner.

By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Creations Lab) and Dr. Aecio D’Silva

Open Pond System (click to enlarge)

We have advocated growing algae for biofuels production as the primary goal on several occasions.  Current research in many parts of the world is being focused on making this process more economical.

The question our group is raising is what if we could obtain large amounts of algae biomass as a byproduct from another process? That would significantly reduce the production cost. This might not be such a farfetched idea.

Using algaeforbiofuels from wastewater treatment is gaining a lot of interest lately. This process is also referred to as ‘phycoremediation’. There are several approaches being developed, but they all offer some interesting advantages over conventional wastewater treatment processes.

1. Low energy requirements

Photosynthetically grown algae in open ponds are low in energy input needs

2. Reduction in sludge formation

Conventional treatments require hazardous chemicals and generate hazardous waste sludge that needs to be disposed off in landfills. Phycoremediation eliminates the need for environmentally unfriendly chemicals.

3. Less greenhouse gas production

Conventional treatment plants produce large amounts of greenhouse gasses. The advantage of using algae is that they are expected to consume more CO2 than is released in the process.

4. Cost effectiveness

Due to the low energy cost, lower operation costs and potential use of algae biomass, some have predicted that phycoremediation is significantly more cost effective than conventional processes. High operation costs make waste water treatment conventionally unviable in many countries.

5. Produce useful algal biomass

The biomass is useful for the production of biodiesel or bioethanol through processes that we have described in our other blogs. As we have shown, there are promising advantages of using algae for these types of fuels and now is an excellent time to invest in this opportunity.

Waste water is typically performed in a three step process: primary, secondary and tertiary stages. Algae can in theory be used in each step, but the main focus of research and testing occurs at the secondary stage.

Both municipal and industrial water effluent could be used for algae growth. Although the composition of different waste water types will differ widely, the algae will purify the water by assimilating nitrates and phosphates and CO2 fixation. The primary and pretreatment steps will have to be optimized for each different industry. We are currently adapting and optimizing novel algae strains to grow to high yields on some of these types of waste water.

Three types of wastewater treatment systems are typically being used for algae based treatment:

-Waste Stabilization Pond Systems (WSPs): open ponds where algae grow photosynthetically, generate O2, which is used by bacteria that break down the organic compounds in the water. The latter generates CO2, which is captured and fixed by the algae during photosynthetic growth.

-High Rate Algal ponds (HRAP): shallow, paddle wheel mixed open raceway ponds. Faster growth rate than traditional WSP’s.

-Photobioreactors (PBRs): Closed systems. Higher capex and operation cost, but more algae biomass per liter generated.

Each of these is different in its economical viability, stage of development and speed. WSPs are typically the least expensive, but HRAP systems have more efficient assimilation of wastewater nutrients into algal biomass. PBRs are considered not to be economically viable and so far haven’t been scaled up for phycoremediation.

Interestingly, similar challenges need to be overcome in phycoremediation as in current algae for biofuel development. Treatment and processes need to be optimized, harvesting systems need to be cost effective and byproducts need to be exploited to make the process viable. Besides optimizing the algae growth (water depth, nutrient addition rate, mixing, etc) the water treatment also needs to be optimized (reduce BOD and TDS, remove nitrate and phosphate at optimal rate, etc.).

Nevertheless, growing algae on these waste streams appears to be a win-win situation. In the end, the water comes out purified and energy-rich biomass is created. A true energy-water nexus!

Member of American Aquabiotech, Biofuels Revolution, Moura Enterprises and MyBeloJardim (ver. Portuguese) Profs. Aecio D’Silva, Dr. John Kyndt and MSc. Fabiano Moura’s Group