Privileged Species – Are we Accidental or Designed?

Privileged Species – “Are humans the accidental products of a blind and uncaring universe? Or are they the beneficiaries of a cosmic order that was planned beforehand to help them flourish?

Privileged Species is a 33-minute documentary by Discovery Institute that explores growing evidence from physics, chemistry, biology, and related fields that our universe was designed for large multicellular beings like ourselves.

Privileged Species featuring geneticist and author Michael Denton, the documentary investigates the special properties of carbon, water, and oxygen that make human life and the life of other organisms possible, and it explores some of the unique features of humans that make us a truly privileged species.”

Original Text from  Discovery Institute:


Fuel Cell Cars: How a Fuel Cell Vehicle Works

Fuel Cell Cars – How it Works?

Do you would like know how a hydrogen fuel cell works to power a car? Automaker Hyundai is offering a cool visual on how its fuel cells operate in vehicles. Basically, the anode splits the hydrogen molecule into a positive and negative ion. The negative ions are used for electricity, while the positive ions are pushed through a membrane to the cathode, where both ions are combined with oxygen to create the byproduct of water. There’s a little more to it than that to make it work in a car. Check for yourself in the animation below.

How a Fuel Cell Car Works (Source: Hyundai)

How a Fuel Cell Car Works (Source: Hyundai)

AquaBioPonics Without Borders: Why Micro AquaBioPonics Systems – MSABP?

AquaBioPonics Without Borders– Created by Dr. Aecio D’Silva, designer of AquaBioPonics Technologies

AquaBioPonics is the Sustainable Integration of aquaculture + hydroponics + rainwater harvest + beneficial insects + vermiculture + organic land gardening + small livestock + wind and solar power + biofertilizers + biofuels among others components to produce high quality organic food. MSABP is the micro version of AquaBioPonics Without Borders International Program.

These are some reasons why you should empower yourself growing your own organic and healthy food using AquaBioPonics – MSABP.

AquaBioPonics in Action (Source: Aquabioponics)

AquaBioPonics Without Borders in Action (Source: Aquabioponics)

Having a MSABP you can:
  • Can grow organically almost any produce and vegetables plus Tilapia – excelent protein source
  • Is not limited to age group or gender – ideal for women, teens, adults and right for the elderly
  • Is modular and movable – can be disassembled and shipped if necessary, and can be set up almost anywhere
  • Is an extremely efficient teaching tool as a life and business labs in schools – almost everything can be taught in any level of learning
  • Uses minimum and small spaces and can be indoor or outdoor
  • Uses no fertilizers or pesticides – completely spray free
  • Recycles 100% nutrient usage – zero wastage
  • Has zero nutrient rich effluent discharge – no nutrient-rich water dumping
  • Has low water usage – up to 90% less than soil based agriculture; stored rainwater can be used to top up
  • Has low power consumption – can be powered by Renewable energy;
  • Has low environmental footprint – almost zero, in fact if powered by solar-wind power
  • Delivers higher productivity per sqm – up to four times compared with land growing agriculture
  • Easy to set up, operate and use – can be up and running in a matter of hours
  • Opens avenues for small business and value addition of nutritious food products – Is commercially viable with low running costs
  • Helps food security programs – promotes health organic diets
  • Creates employment and self-employment – boosts local economy
  • Addresses region’s nutritional deficiencies – contributes to good health and well-being of children, teens, adults and elderly in your community

It is about time to develop AquaBioPonics system in your house, garage, garden, backyard, school, community. Why not?

LSQLSystems Way vs. Six Sigma Way – The Results Make All the Difference

LSQLSystems Way – By: Dr. Aecio D’Silva, CEO, Moura Technologies and Dr. John Kyndt (Director of Professional Sciences, Bellevue University).

In our training courses, lectures and consulting of continuous improvement and innovation as part of sustainable quality leadership programs someone upfront always asks the following question:

What is the difference between our Lean Sustainable Quality Leadership System (LSQLSystems Way), Lean Management (Toyota Way) and Six Sigma Management (GE Way)?

In fact, if a company, organization or business is considering or reviewing the options for implementing a program of Continuous Improvement and Innovation the first question that may arise is which technology to use.

Your business can be in aquabusiness, renewable energy, agribusiness, mining, pharmaceuticals, conventional energy, biotechnology, health care, cosmetics, transport or research and development. It may consist of a factory, office, farm, laboratory, hospital, airport, schools, universities, shopping mall or any other activity of delivering products, services or technology, one of the first decisions you will have to make is which program / system that will choose how to continuously innovate your business and stay ahead of the competition.

First of all, you should know that differences between LSQLSystems and Lean Management are very few or almost none. The basic difference is the driven focus of LSQLSystems in sustainability and creative-systemic-sustainable analysis.

With exception of this point, they are basically just different implementation methodologies, with a strong focus on attitude and great fidelity to the innovation teachings of Dr. E. Deming.

However there are basic and fundamental difference between LSQLSystems and Six Sigma management

Today with the global success of Lean Production Management (Lean Management) led by Toyota and Boeing and the Six Sigma administration by command-control promoted by GE, it is important to understand the structural differences between these two business approaches.

LSQLSystems Way vs. Six Sigma Way – Defining What is What

To understand this better, let’s begin with some simplified definitions, starting with Six Sigma Way. Six Sigma is many other things beyond high stress and command-and-control from top to down. It is strictly a statistical program (establishing the maximum of 3.4 defects per million parts produced).

It is also a set of tools (GR & R, Stats descriptive, regression, DOE, etc.), a system for identifying and solving problems in the processes (e.g., DMAIC, PIDOV, DMADV), but is also a command-control management philosophy and highly stressful.

SQLSystems Way or Lean Production, on the other hand, is all the things mentioned above for Six Sigma, except the stress and statistics. LSQLSystems and Lean also use a set of tools (PDCA, eKanban, ERP, Poke-Yoke, Andon, VSM, Standardization, Intense Visual Factory, etc…), but applies these with a much more personal focus having great respect for the people.

LSQLSystems, particularly, is a process that usually begins with personal changing of attitude, sustainable approach, using 5s (sort, set, sweep, standardize and sustain) and PDCA (plan, do, study and act) to solve root challenges (which others call problems) at all levels.

LSQLSystems Way or Lean Management is based on: 1) long term thinking-planning, but taking excellent care of the present; 2) the right process produces the right results; 3) process driven-oriented system; 4) developing people and partners and building people, not just products; 5) continuously identifying and solving root challenges drive organizational learning; 6) lean, learning, continuously improving system; 7) company’s sustainable culture vision, mission and values that go beyond short-time profit; 8) constantly adding value from the customers’ perspectives in everything we delivery; 9) sustainable leadership commitment and determination to continuously invest in our people and promoting a culture of continuously improvement; and 10) the right combination of company sustainable quality culture, process, continuously trained people and root challenges solving that can create an always learning enterprises with sustainable operational excellence in every area of the company.

LSQLSystems Production System (LSQLS-PS) uses intensively correct attitude, creative-systemic-sustainable analysis plus the vision-approach of Profound Knowledge introduced by Dr. E. Deming (PDSA, SPK) and Kaizen (change incrementally and continuously for the better).

LSQLSystems Way to succeed must be an essential philosophy or leadership-management life-style involving all, from the CEO to the janitorial staff, with a focus on a business participative and sustainable leadership where clients/customers always come first, where workers have the right attitude and practice, and where, continuous training, improvement, transformation and innovation are relentlessly and decisively stimulated.

The best definition of LSQLSystems is to put the client / customer first in everything, having the right attitude and do the right thing right, at the lowest cost, at the first time, with zero waste, maximum results and efficiency, passionate with quality, always changing, transforming and innovating with sustainability.

LSQLSystems Way vs. Six Sigma Way – Difference in Results

Both approaches can be applied successfully. However, the results obtained in terms of always putting the customer first, have the right attitude, eliminating waste, and respect / engagement / involvement of employees (we call ACIS – Agents of Changes, Innovation and Sustainability) in achieving the vision, mission, values and strategic objectives ( short, medium and long term) of the company differ from one another completely.

There are also obvious differences between the tools used in each method, although the processes implemented have some similarities to each other. For example, Kaizen can be mapped through the steps of DMAIC or vice versa.

So what is the difference between LSQLSystems and Six Sigma? The biggest differences can be found when LSQLSystems or Six Sigma is applied predominantly as the only way to manage the business, company and / or enterprise.

Both include training as an essential component, but there is a profound difference between the approaches used and the stress generated in the system.

Although both LSQLSystems and Six Sigma set as a basic requirement to have professionals being trained to be successful, LSQLSystems adds three additional values in training which are not in Six Sigma.

Three central concepts of a LSQLSystems culture are to have: 1) ACIS trained to have the correct attitude; 2) Great emphasis in sustainable processes all over the company; and 3) a focus on multitasking with sustainability which enable all workers to operate in virtually all functions within the company. The ACIS are cross-trained in the processes of daily work, not just specifically in LSQLSystems tools.

These are important distinctions in implementing LSQLSystems programs. A workforce trained in the correct multifunctional attitude wherever is possible, is essential in reducing stress at the workplace, as well as, doing job rotations, which maintain a high level of enthusiasm of ACIS and at the same time cuts the root of the natural tediousness, fatigue, bad mood, work related diseases and natural boredom that inevitably comes to one who does the same thing every day.

LSQLSystems Way vs. Six Sigma Way – Time and Performance Measurements

Another significant difference becomes evident in the use of measurements of time and performance. Both LSQLSystems and Six Sigma emphasize performance measurements, but the approaches are diametrically opposed.

Six Sigma aims to measure the process performance in direct relation to the problem being worked on as the most important measures of business success through dashboards. It is therefore very project level oriented.

These dashboards are generated by pushy command-and-control, carrot-and-stick approaches or top-down style and the process rarely involves or reaches factories production areas or shop floor. Thus, workers do not really know how and why they are doing their jobs.

LSQLSystems, on the other hand, focuses on the measurement on the shop floor and places leaders and ACIS in the production areas or what the Japanese call Gemba, we call Batente – the real work place – to help, train and see for themselves how things are going.

This boosts performance measurements with sustainability from bottom to top, starting with the work cell and proceeding to the plant and the top level. This is obtained by the mandatory practice of the concept of visual factory or signaling of all that is happening in the workplace or Batente.

The idea is that the effectiveness of Visual factory should be so perfect that a person with one eye covered could go fast on a bicycle through the plant and in the end will be able to tell what is happening in the production hall. Everything has to be seen and be obvious to all.

These different approaches illustrate the main difference between the philosophies LSQLSystems Way and Six Sigma. Six Sigma is a philosophy of command from top to bottom that only occasionally involves the production areas whose main practitioners are mid-level managers and engineers, while SQLSystems is a bottom-to-top leadership-management system that integrates all employment levels with sustainability.

LSQLSystems Way – Leader Must Be a Server

The Six Sigma improvement projects are chosen for performance analysis at a high level and imposing changes down the throats of the workers, almost no involvement of those who actually do the work.

LSQLSystems, Way on the other hand, is characterized by the sustainable idea that the environment is one of our customers and the leader should be to serve, assist and train the ACIS, because he is naturally one of them.

Everything is based on less impact possible to the environment, the correct attitude and participative sustainable leadership where everything is done and moved with customers first in everything and with leaders whose main function is to do everything to enhance the success of ACIS (workers).

Leaders of LSQLSystems go to the areas of production, processing or Batente where the work actually happens to see what’s going on, helping, applying continuous improvements and training all ACIS to sustainable succeed on their tasks.

Unlike Six Sigma, the vast majority of training in LSQLSystems companies is made in the work environment or learning-doing and helping everyone succeeds in their functions. Although a highly user-friendly online learning center available 24/7 will reinforce all what is taught in the Batente. The successful of one is the success of all, and vice versa.

For this to be achieved continuously, leaders and all the ACIS have to have the right attitude, respect for the environment, correct values and implement communication skills, continuous training and promote learning at all times and occasions possible.

Another fundamental difference between LSQLSystems and Six Sigma is the focus given to internal competition between workers. Unlike Six Sigma, SQLSystems aims to eliminate internal competition and encourage the maximum cooperation, group achievement and removing fear.

Who has implemented Six Sigma or worked in the GE Jack Welch time knows how this management encourages fierce internal or domestic competition between workers and the resulting distrust and high stress caused to all employees, their morale and damaging teamwork.

It’s like snake swallowing snake where the famous laws of the jungle reigns. That is, the means do not matter; the important thing is to arrive first. Success may be attained, but the damage it does to the environment, the spirit of the workers and team, as a whole, is often devastating. Sustainability has no place in this working culture.

On the other hand, LSQLSystems Way with focus on continuous improvement initiatives and innovations, respect to the our people and customers first start from the bottom up primarily at the individual ACIS and his attitude or his/her relentless desire and determination as a member of a sustainable work cell, to change, transform and innovate his/her own work with sustainability.

Moreover, there is another striking difference between LSQLSystems and Six Sigma at the leadership level.

LSQLSystems Way – Bond of Mutual Trust between ACIS and Leaders

With LSQLSystems Leadership being extremely focused on attitude, sustainability and communication, this creates conditions that allow ACIS always to have an excellent and improved performance, with a bond of mutual trust or as a sacred contract that is built between ACIS and leaders.

This contract implicit implies that the continuous improvements suggested, tested, implemented and adopted by LSQLSystems Way, it will not result in dismissal, loss of jobs or harm the environment.

It is like a kind of moral super glue that creates strong and lasting bonds of trust, mutual respect and dignity for all. Everyone knows that thanks to this sacred bond when fewer ACIS are required in a sustainable work cell, they are not given the pink slip, but relocated to other areas of the company.

Six Sigma, by other hand … Well, leave it for someone who has already implemented this management system in his/her company to talk about the experience….. as they became unemployed … and henceforth …

LSQLSystems Way – Are You Thinking of Implementing a Continuous Improvement Program?

Of course there are many more differences between management LSQLSystems and Six Sigma, and few between LSQLSystems and Toyota Lean Management Way but the above are basic core differences and we hope that can help you in making the initial decision about which system to use in your program / project of Continuous Improvement and Innovation with Environmental Sustainability.

Sustainability to Succeed – The Four Levels

Sustainability has emerged as a growing hype in various levels of society. It is hard to miss a reference to the ‘sustainability’ buzz word in any science or emerging technology journal or business innovation magazine.

What Needs to Sustainability to Succeed?

What Needs to Sustainability to Succeed?

This may seem like a new trend, however if you think of it, businesses have ‘sustained’ themselves for many years and various societies have ‘sustained’ for much longer than our current one. What is changing is the way the various levels of sustainability are being integrated.

Most people think of environmental requirements for present and future generations when they hear sustainability. On the other hand, if you are roaming in a business environment, it is often thought of in a financial sense. However these areas are not as segregated as one would think when considering sustainable solutions.

We have always argued that a truly sustainable solution should have an environmental, economic, and social goal, and most importantly, a sustainable leadership mind-set in order to succeed. A company that thrives to be sustainable ought to have short-term and long-term plans for each of these development areas.

Sustainability is intrinsically driven by creative change, innovation and adaptation driven by a sustainable leadership. Think for example in the context of a society. The societies that sustained for the longest are the ones that could resolve crises creatively; however the ones that could not, faced an inevitable decline. The same can be said for sustainable businesses.

 The long-term success of a business does not only depend on the amount of profit it makes, but how it creates and maintains a long-term positive cash flow. This requires sustainability and leadership-driven planning on the following four levels:

 1. Environment/Energy/Efficiency/Empower

Companies that incorporate a true effort to optimize the principles of efficiency in resource usage, sustainable energy use, environmental consciousness and empowering sustainable personal leadership are not just doing this for their own ‘peace of mind’ or to improve the company image, they are also expecting long-term economic benefits from this.

As part of a short-term plan, a sustainable leadership empowering training program, a reduction of energy costs and leaner operations as far as resource usage will have a direct effect on the bottom line of the company.

Companies that make this ‘4 E principle’ part of their longer term plans and make a larger investment in this (e.g. solar power installation, bio-fuel powered fleet, sustainable leadership training, etc.) will benefit from a longer-term reward, both on the level of lower operation costs and the level of costumer retention (especially if sustainability is not just a “feels good” slogan, but a significant part of the companies leadership, vision and mission).

 2. People/Social

Especially with the growth of social media in companies business strategies, the social effect of sustainability is become more significant and a differentiator in how companies position themselves in the marketplace.

More and more companies are putting more effort into ‘helping a cause’ as part of their strategy. Of course this is not without a purpose to receive a corresponding ROI (return on investment) and expected growth and expansion, but nevertheless there are plenty of examples where this form of sustainability has benefited society in the long run.

Another level of this is at the increased employee retention, which a company that puts more effort into sustainable personal leadership for its people typically has. This also benefits the growth of the company if one thinks about how much time and money it costs to replace an employee.

 3. Business/Financial

Of course the initial goal of a company is to maintain a positively growing bottom line. Short term sales goals with sustainable profit margins and a long term vision of growth, product diversification and new market entry are strategies that maintain a sustainable business from a financial perspective.

Without this, a company could put all the effort it wants in being socially, environmentally sustainable and energy efficient, but in the end if it doesn’t make enough money, it is evident that none of its stakeholders input or its good intended efforts will sustain.

 4. Sustainable Leadership

Every sustainable action, project, programs are developed by people. Consequently, for sustainability to succeed it is irreplaceable to empower and educate people to understand, practice, master and move their lives and business in a sustainable way.

So, having a sustainable leadership or a leadership knowing how to be driven by sustainability at personal and corporate levels is vital for sustainability to be successful in every angle. Everyone and every company developing sustainable projects and programs has to put high emphasis on teaching, coaching and instructing sustainability to form sustainable based leaders with resolved minds.

As we know from our concept of system where everything is connected and everything affects everything, having sustainable leadership principles, that drive all what we do personally and in business, are a backbone component to sustainability. It accomplishes its purpose in our lives, families, business, as well as, in all that we plan, do and develop.

Practically speaking, any sustainable efforts and programs that aim to have long-term success should initiate an intensive, sustainable leadership with a resolved mind-set education program that extends to everyone involved in running the company.

 Sustainability – The Commitment to These Four Levels

In general terms, if a company maintains a commitment at these four levels it is often referred to as Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), which drives sustainability. Interestingly this statement can easily be turned around as sustainability driving CSR and the company leadership.

Finally, it is important to understand that sustainability requires change, training and education. However this change needs to be with a purpose, with a clear goal, a true innovation in itself and plenty of guidance and preparation. This change for sustainability quite often requires a change in attitude, mind-set and lifestyle.

Sustainable cities and green buildings, sustainable agriculture, renewable energy, and green chemistry are just a few examples to think off, where lifestyle conditions are required to conserve resources. The ability to change and the influence of sustainable leaders can make a difference between ‘sustaining’ or perishing.

By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Advanced Energy Independence Lab) and Dr. Aecio D’Silva, CEO Moura Technologies.

Now Algae Coloring the Future Green eBook is Available  in Google Play

Algae Coloring The Future Green 2nd Edition

Algae Coloring The Future Green eBook 2nd Edition Available at, Barnes & Nobles, Google Play , Smashwords and other eBooks Stores


The revised and applied 2n edition of  the ebook Algae Coloring the Future Green of Drs. John Kyndt and Aecio D’Silva is intended for scientists, entrepreneurs, students, engineers, algae growers and investors that are interested in the potential algae have for fuel production, as well as, manufacture of high value chemicals, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Algae Coloring The Future Green 2nd Edition- Introduction

The revised and applied 2nd edition of ebook Algae Coloring the Future Green Available at

The revised and applied 2nd edition of ebook Algae Coloring the Future Green Available at

Although algae have been thought of as a potential fuel source in the past, it wasn’t until the skyrocketing fossil fuel prices in 2008 that this miniscule source of power was taken seriously.

Previously mainly known as “pond scum” and a plague for pool owners and fish farms, algae are now being seen as a promising and emerging investment for future energy sources. In the last two years there have been several announcements of million dollar investments from both private and government sources into the algae for fuel concept.

Think for example of the Exxon-Mobile announcement of a $600 million investment in algae biofuels, and the recent $45 million DOE funding of the National Alliance on Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB) to perform algae-derived fuel research.

With all these million dollar investments and with even the world’s largest airplane maker, Boeing, turning its eyes on algae, it is clear that the race to develop the next generation fuel from algae is on.

The concept of using algae for fuel is remarkably simple. The fuel is essentially derived from algae that have captured energy through the photosynthesis of sunlight while growing in nutrient-rich water sources such as sewage ponds.

The algae use the energy to create biomass, while capturing carbon dioxide. Algae need in average 2.8 tons of CO2, 0.95 ton of nutrients, light and water to produce 1 ton of dry matter. The resulting biomass can be used for fuel production by a few possible pathways.

Depending on the biomass composition, it can be used to produce biodiesel (through transesterification), biojetfuel (through hydrocracking), or bioethanol (through fermentation). The biomass composition is dependent on the algae species grown. Some species have a high preference for lipids as storage material (40-70 % of the dry weight) and others become rich in carbohydrates (starch and sugars).

The lipid-rich algae are an excellent source for biodiesel and petrol production, while the high-starch species are ideal candidates for the production of bioethanol. By controlling the supply of certain environmental factors, algae can be tuned to produce unusually high quantities of lipids or starch.

Algae Coloring The Future Green – Doubling their Mass in about 3-4 hours during Optimal Growth

Compared with terrestrial crops, microalgae are inherently more efficient solar collectors, use less land, and can double their mass in about 3-4 hours during optimal growth, which is significantly faster than the doubling time for other plants that are used for bioethanol or biodiesel production (e.g. corn and switchgrass for ethanol and palm oil).

One other advantage is that algae are lacking lignin which simplifies the biomass to liquid fuel conversion.

It is clear that our society in its current form is strongly dependent on crude oil and a new sustainable resource should be able to supply not only the transportation fuel need, but also feed into the chemical industry.

Today, as much as 10% of all crude oil is used for the production of industrial chemicals. Overall, these chemicals are significantly more economically valuable than transportation fuels.

As we will discuss, this does not only create an opportunity to produce high value chemicals from algae, but it is a necessity to integrate this into an economically viable, algae-based biorefinery.

Although the concept is very promising and the stakes are high, there are still major challenges to overcome, hence the need for million dollar investments and consorted research efforts.

One challenge is the fact that the slower growing algae species make the higher concentrations of lipids and/or carbohydrates, while the faster growing species do not. Another is the lack of economically viable harvesting technologies for large scale algae production.

Current efforts are being focused to create algae with improved traits and to develop innovative harvesting technologies. State-of-the-art proteomics and cutting-edge genetic engineering are being utilized to tackle these issues because we sincerely believe that biofuel from microalgae is a renewable biofuel that has the potential to displace petroleum-derived transport fuels without adversely affecting supply of food and other crop products.

Major emerging opportunities lie in the use of algae as “production factories” for cosmetics, nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Each of these are billion dollar industries that are constantly lurking for new innovative, marketable products and production lines that will give them a competitive advantage.

As we will discuss, both the use of algae as natural products or as genetically optimized production factories have strong potential to become the next big breakthrough in beauty and therapeutic products.

Although it is unclear which one of the discussed emerging technologies might prevail, what is certain is that algae do have the potential to color our future bright green.

The authors of Algae Color the Future Green introduced algae for biofuel research to the Mike Cusanovich’ Lab at the University of Arizona. Mike was very supportive of the concept and as a consequence, his lab was one of the driving forces to create the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bioproducts (NAABB).

Algae Coloring The Future Green  Dedicated To Mike Cusanovich

Algae Color the Future Green Dedicated to Mike-Cusanovich-1942-2010

Algae Color the Future Green Dedicated to Mike-Cusanovich-1942-2010

Algae Color The Future Green eBook is dedicated to our friend and colleague Mike Cusanovich (Michael Anthony Cusanovich), 1942 – 2010, a great man, superb scientist, inspiring leader and passionate mentor. You will be missed, but your legacy lives on in the work of the many students, like us, that you inspired in science.

Nutraceuticals Are Big Business

Nutraceuticals – By: Dr. John Kyndt ( Head Scientist of the Renewable Energy Program at Advanced Energy Independence Lab) and Dr. Aecio D’Silva.

Nutraceuticals Big Business

Nutraceuticals Big Business

As we pointed out in previous posts and in our recent e-book (Algae Color the Future Green, 2012) Nutraceuticals are on the rise and commanding a multi-billion dollar market.

Nutraceuticals have gone from obscure to mainstream, and the market is expected to grow to more than $240 billion by 2015.

The term nutraceutical is contracted from the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, and refers to a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits. These benefits could be either preventative or actual curing a condition or disease.

The best known examples are dietary or herbal supplements, however more recently, nutraceuticals are emerging in the areas of genetically engineered foods and processed foods such as cereals, soups, and beverages.

There is already a substantial industry developed on omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and carotenoids. Scientists have known for years that these healthy, unsaturated long-chain fatty acids are essential for normal growth and metabolism in humans, and have preventative health effects in cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, the abatement of depression and the inhibition of cancer.

Nutraceuticals: A Healthy Opportunity in Different Categories

Nutraceuticals are generally classified in four main categories:

1.Dietary supplements: product that contains nutrients derived from food products

2.Functional foods: foods that have been either enriched or fortified (supplemented e.g. with vitamins or calcium)

3.Medical foods: foods intended for the specific dietary management of a disease or condition (established by medical evaluation).

4.Farmaceuticals: derived from melding of the words ‘farm’ and ‘pharmaceuticals’. These are medically valuable compounds produced from modified agricultural crops or animals through biotechnology (genetic engineering).

Of the four, functional foods are no doubt the fastest growing sector of the nutraceuticals, and it’s not expected to slow down.

Fueled by a growing demand, the number of companies looking to leverage the nutraceuticals movement is growing. Even large global food companies like PepsiCo and Nestle S.A. are creating divisions that deal exclusively with the development of nutraceuticals. This in itself demonstrates the mainstream food industry’s strong faith in the market.

A significant change in the industry came in 1994 when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA), which allowed nutraceutical manufacturers to operate without falling under the rigorous FDA guidelines used in the regulation of pharmaceuticals.

However with the growth of the industry also comes the growing concern to increase the regulations and monitoring of nutraceutical production. There are clearly great business opportunities in this area but there are also significant challenges as companies will have to work around more regulations and minimize production costs.

Algae Color the Future Green at